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The professional assessment of the quality of a wine by tasting requires a lot of experience and yet seems to be highly subjective. Yet, it is still hardly valid to replace it by scientific methods. This, at least, was the result of an ambitious research project of the renowned Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology with the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso in Chile, which was dedicated to the so-called "chemical fingerprint" of a wine, i. e. the analysis of its complex chemical components. The institute pursued the question which parameters determine the quality of wine and whether these could then serve as biomarkers for wine attributes, in order to be able to determine objective criteria for the evaluation of wine. So, it was hoped for substances as measurable parameters for grape variety, origin, wine quality and vintage. It is known that every single step of the wine development leaves traces in the form of characteristic ingredients in the wine. Although many wine constituents are known, most studies have so far been limited to the analysis of specific groups of molecules, such as volatile or phenolic substances, anthocyanins etc. Some authors have at least succeeded in determining some reproducible parameters, e.g. for grape variety and origin.