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Chianti Classico and Brunello di Montalcino in the heart of Tuscany are among the most famous and important appellations in Italy. Sangiovese plays the main role in both wine-growing regions: 80 per cent in Chianti Classico and 100 per cent in Brunello. But the variety has difficulty adapting to changing environmental conditions. How are the winegrowers dealing with the effects of climate change?

"In Montalcino, the average temperatures have risen by 1 to 1.5° C since 2000, and the hottest zones in the south suffer the most from this," explains Giacomo Bartolommei from the Caprili winery and vice president of the Brunello consortium. For him, water is currently the most important problem in viticulture: "Montalcino is not particularly rich in water, and the resources available are mostly thermal water, which is very warm at 27 to 28° C. We are therefore concentrating on emergency irrigation. We therefore concentrate on emergency irrigation, which is only used when the vine is under stress. Studies have shown that by introducing the mineral zeolite in winter, the soils store more rainwater and stay fresher."